Differential Privacy (DP)[i]: This mathematical framework gives the ability to control to what extent the model ‘remembers’ and ‘forgets’ potentially sensitive data, which is its big advantage. The most popular concept of DP is ‘noisy counting’, which is based on drawing samples from Laplace distribution and using them to make the dataset represent augmented values, not the real one. However, the main disadvantage of Differential Privacy is the potential for the attacker to estimate the actual value from the repeated queries. Predictions made by using different private datasets are accurate enough, but with each new query made by the attacker, more and more sensitive information is getting released.
Federated Learning[ii]: The core idea of federated learning is very similar to distributed learning, because we’re not trying to train our model with all of the data at once, but instead are training it on subsets of it. This is quite a powerful method as long as we can effectively train and improve the model on separate devices while holding different subsets of data and gradually improve it.
‘Private Aggregation of Teacher Ensembles’
(PATE): This framework uses pieces of the different privacy methods, which is
storing personal/sensitive data in a way that doesn’t reveal any kind of
individual personal information. The core idea of PATE is that if two models
trained on separate data agree on some outcome, it is less likely that sharing
the outcome to the consumer will leak any sensitive data about a specific user.
Training methodology is quite similar to federated learning (and bagging
techniques, of course) because at the first step we need to split our dataset
into smaller subsets and then train different models on them. Predictions are
made by aggregating all of the predictions from different models and injecting
noise into them.
Another important feature of PATE is that we’re
continuously training our downstream ‘student’ model using this ‘noisy’ data
and finally showing the user not the ‘teacher’ models, but rather the ‘student’
ones, which ensures that sensitive/personal data is not revealed during
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This is the fifth part of a five-part series about machine learning methodologies for de-identifying and securing personal data by 1touch.io. For part one, click here. For part two, click here. For part three, click here. For part four, click here.